New Taiwan: Ilha Formosa
The Website for Taiwan's History, Present, and Future
Click Here for the Taiwan Communique

Selected Articles:

in 2004

in 2003

in 2002

in 2001

in 1999-2000

Major Recent Events and Issues:

August 2002: President Chen: Taiwan going our own way

August 2001: Full and equal UN membership

March 2000: Presidential Elections

"Nation-to-nation" relations with China

Security in the Taiwan Strait

Chinese stealing nuclear secrets

Visit of Chinese premier Zhu Rongji

20 years Taiwan Relations Act

Some Major Events of the Last Few Years:

Washington, 18 June 1998: "Stand up for Taiwan"

Washington, 29 Oct. 1997: "Say Yes to Taiwan"

Taipei, 28 June 1997: "Say No to China"

"A new flag for a new Taiwan"

"Let Taiwan join the UN"

Back to: Taiwan, Ilha Formosa home page


The Taipei Times is Taiwan's prime English-language newspaper. Below, we link to a number of its editorials and articles on important issues.

Selected Articles and Editorials in 2003

November 2003

30 November 2003: President Chen plans March "defensive" referendum vote

30 November 2003: Editorial: Referendum law not a blue triumph

30 November 2003: Lee Teng-hui condemns Referendum law

30 November 2003: Cabinet thinks twice about overturning "bird-cage" law

29 November 2003: Editorial: Let referendum issue rest for now

29 November 2003: Angry DPP looks to scrap new law

29 November 2003: President Chen: Direct democracy hasn't arrived yet

28 November 2003: Editorial: Referendum won't set China off

28 November 2003: Legislature passes referendum law

28 November 2003: Cabinet considering whether to try to veto new referendum law

22 November 2003: Editorial: Let the debate highlight the differences

22 November 2003: John Rieder: Taiwan, tell us who you are

22 November 2003: US would accept referendum and new Constitution

21 November 2003: US warns China not to use force against Taiwan

15 November 2003: Editorial: China's espionage threat

14 November 2003: Ruan Ming: Time to put an end to the "One China" Fallacy

13 November 2003: Editorial: A rendezvouz with history is set

13 November 2003: Orville Schell: China's enigmatic economic "miracle"

13 November 2003: Panelists see US-Taiwan relations growing firmer

12 November 2003: President Chen drafts timetable on Constitution

11 November 2003: Emily Sheng: Blue-camp lethargy helps DPP

11 November 2003: Paul Lin: Chen chalks up series of diplomatic successes

10 November 2003: Nat Bellocchi: Communicating makes a difference

10 November 2003: Kenneth Choy: Lien Chan stuck in the past

09 November 2003: Editorial: Taipei Times: Quality counts in foreign affairs

09 November 2003: Yu Mei-mei: Blue camp trying to stifle talks on change

08 November 2003: Joseph Wu: Journey to democracy focus of the world stage

01 November 2003: Editorial: A welcome shot in the arm

01 November 2003: Li Thian-hok: The threat in China's space race

September 2003

30 September 2003: Editorial: New Constitution is needed

29 September 2003: President Chen: Call for new Constitution

29 September 2003: Editorial: A birthday with little to celebrate

29 September 2003: Nat Bellocchi: There's nothing new under the sun

28 September 2003: Editorial: Chiang Ching-kuo was Mr. No Democracy

23 September 2003: Editorial: China weaves its insideous web

23 September 2003: Hermann Solms: A voice for Taiwan in Europe

13 September 2003: Liberty Times: Dumping ROC means recognition

13 September 2003: Ho Szu-shen: Taiwan's status left unresolved by treaties

10 September 2003: Wu Ming-chi: Call Taiwan Taiwan, it's easier

10 September 2003: Nat Bellocchi: Presidential vote will have far-reaching results

08 September 2003: Editorial: Fighting fire with fire

08 September 2003: James Wang: Nation's diplomacy in a sad state

07 September 2003: Lee Teng-hui leads 150,000 in name-change rally

07 September 2003: Editorial: The last democratic reform

07 September 2003: A walk in the sun for "Taiwan"

06 September 2003: Thousands expected to take part in "Name change" rally

06 September 2003: Yeh Hai-yen: The fiction that is the Republic of China

04 September 2003: Editorial: Taiwan: the KMT's biggest enemy

04 September 2003: Name change forces take fight to the streets

July 2003

30 July 2003: Kevin Hsu: Soong enamored with PRC

29 July 2003: Taiwanese based in China facing loss of citizenship

28 July 2003: Legislator Shen Fu-hsiung: What is the PFP idea about "one country"?

27 July 2003: President Chen determined over referendums

27 July 2003: Prof. Chen Lung-chu: First lady's European tour a big success

27 July 2003: Chen Fang-ming: The DPP should stick to what it knows

25 July 2003: Huang Tien-lin: Do not stumble into Beijing's trap

24 July 2003: Editorial: Avoiding the lure of China

24 July 2003: Liu Kuan-teh: Beijing's military buildup a clear threat

22 July 2003: First Lady wins hearts and minds in Europe

21 July 2003: Nat Bellocchi: Ambiguities continue to blossom

20 July 2003: Editorial: Refusing China's visa demands

20 July 2003: Liberty Times: In the example of HK lies a lesson

18 July 2003: Editorial: The risks of investing in China

18 July 2003: Yu Mao-chun: Crouching tiger or paper dragon?

18 July 2003: US House passes more pro-Taiwan legislation

17 July 2003: US House frowns on Beijing's targeting Taiwan

17 July 2003: DPP wants referendum on National Assembly

16 July 2003: Editorial: First Lady a beacon for the country

16 July 2003: Prof. Chen Lung-chih: Nation can treat SARS as a new beginning

15 July 2003: OpEd: Some thoughts on nuclear energy

14 July 2003: Parris Chang: Taiwanese should not bury their freedoms

13 July 2003: Liberty Times: Ignore China's huffing and puffing

12 July 2003: Li Thian-hok: The pitfalls of the US' China policy

09 July 2003: Huang Tien-lin: Hong Kong; Taiwan's future under China?

07 July 2003: Gary Schmitt: US policy is undermining the TRA

07 July 2003: Hung Mao-hsiung: Nothing wrong with referendums

05 July 2003: Gerrit van der Wees: With a Paal like this, who needs an enemy?

May 2003

31 May 2003: Parris Chang: Beijing's behavior is beneath contempt

30 May 2003: George Thompson: Shame on the UN and shame also on China

30 May 2003: Lin Wen-cheng: China's contemptible behavior is only typical

25 May 2003: Editorial: Too late and too high a price

25 May 2003: Liberty Times: The battle lines have been drawn

25 May 2003: Liu Kuan-teh: Let's make room for a referendum on the WHO

22 May 2003: Editorial: It's time to stand up to Beijing

21 May 2003: Editorial: An unconscionable failure of nerve

20 May 2003: WHO shoots down Assembly entry bid

18 May 2003: Liberty Times: If WHO won't help us, who will?

17 May 2003: Liu Kuan-teh: Taiwanese must learn to trust one another

16 May 2003: Nat Bellocchi: Three events could reshape the world

14 May 2003: Editorial: WHO must ignore China's contempt

14 May 2003: Huang Tien-lin: Taiwan must consider SARS threat

13 May 2003: Pu Ta-chung: China's self-serving actions alienating

12 May 2003: Editorial: When lives hinge on a name

12 May 2003: Parris Chang: WHO observer status within reach

11 May 2003: Liberty Times: It's time to break the WHO taboo

11 May 2003: Editorial: We need to close the SARS loopholes

10 May 2003: Editorial: The SARS battle we cannot avoid

09 May 2003: Editorial: China's crocodile tears can't erase the truth

07 May 2003: Lin Cho-shui: China's powers slumps after Sept. 11

07 May 2003: Wang Dan: SARS will deal a blow to China's economy

05 May 2003: Editorial: Bonehead ideas in the SARS saga

04 May 2003: Nat Bellocchi: Democracy worth more than cash

04 May 2003: Editorial: Cheers to news SARS legislation

04 May 2003: US Congress wants role for Taiwan at the WHO

03 May 2003: Lee Tuo-tzu: China never could do the math

02 May 2003: Editorial: Cooperation needed to beat SARS

01 May 2003: Editorial: Time for the WHO to show some spine

01 May 2003: Paul Lin: China's leaders playing politics with health

March 2003

31 March 2003: Editorial: Lien Chan makes China an issue

30 March 2003: Taiwan Caucus blasts WHO's lack of support

30 March 2003: Liberty Times: Focus on deterring the China threat

29 March 2003: Editorial: Opposition ill with SARS dreams

28 March 2003: Editorial: The blue camp's democratic problem

28 March 2003: US Congress to discuss Taiwan security

27 March 2003: Editorial: When everything old is new again

27 March 2003: Paul Lin: It's time to think of an alternative to the UN

26 March 2003: Editorial: Disloyalty is not opposition

26 March 2003: Bob Sutter: Taiwan walks the razor's edge

26 March 2003: Chin Heng-wei: Taiwan has decided to stand with its true ally

25 March 2003: Chris Lingle: The EU is composed of cowards

25 March 2003: Tzeng Kuei-hai: Why Soong must seek to placate the Chinese

24 March 2003: Editorial: When silence is best

24 March 2003: Nuclear power: Lin Yi-hsiung takes on DPP orthodoxy

23 March 2003: Editorial: SARS: The US helps, the WHO doesn't

23 March 2003: Liberty Times: Keep sharp, as the power balance tilts

22 March 2003: Editorial: United we stand, divided we fail

22 March 2003: Chen Yi-shen: The Taiwanese people have a legal right to a plebiscite

21 March 2003: Editorial: From Bagdad to Taipei

21 March 2003: Nat Bellocchi: Two legislatures face challenges

20 March 2003: Joseph Wu: No war does not equal world peace

16 March 2003: Former President Lee: Let Taiwan be Taiwan

16 March 2003: Condoleezza Rice: US won't sacrifice Taiwan for support from China

12 March 2003: Editorial: Standing up on issues big and small

12 March 2003: Parris Chang: Taiwan should join TMD system

10 March 2003: Editorial: Support comes with a price tag

09 March 2003: Liberty Times: Do not succumb to "China fever"

09 March 2003: Liu Kuan-teh: President Chen proves he is a spin master

07 March 2003: Nat Bellocchi: Military reforms are still too slow

07 March 2003: Editorial: Who are the real conspirators?

07 March 2003: More Chung Hsing Bills revelations on the way

03 March 2003: Editorial: James Soong follows the money

02 March 2003: Roland Dumas: James Soong took US$ 400 mln bribe

01 March 2003: Editorial: Blue camp should face up to its past

01 March 2003: President Chen: calls on Taiwan to forgive but never forget

January 2003

27 January 2003: President Chen: pushing for "Taiwan priority"

27 January 2003: Koo Kuan-min: staying the course for independence

26 January 2003: Editorial: KMT-PFP, a marriage not made in heaven

23 January 2003: New curriculum to stress "Taiwan-centered" values

22 January 2003: New line-up prepares for 2004 contest

20 January 2003: Editorial: A long-overdue awakening

20 January 2003: New Tibetan organization to be opened

19 January 2003: Editorial: Thanks for the heads up, VP Lu

19 January 2003: Liberty Times: Beijing hampers our globalization

18 January 2003: President Chen: warning Asia for Chinese threat

18 January 2003: Editorial: Unification by 2005, forget it!

17 January 2003: Editorial: US Congress vows support for Taiwan

16 January 2003: TECRO name must go, groups say

15 January 2003: Editorial: Chiang's legacy not worth worship

15 January 2003: Li Thian-hok: The Bush doctrine and China policy

14 January 2003: James Wang: The KMT's localization claim is empty

13 January 2003: Lee Teng-hui: Calling for a new Constitution

13 January 2003: Poet Lee Ming-yuan speaks of the importance of "Taiwan"

13 January 2003: Chiang Ching-kuo, dead but not forgotten

10 January 2003: Editorial: The Great Dictator CCK?

10 January 2003: Nat Bellocchi: Preserving liberty is the priority

09 January 2003: Editorial: Rebuild Kaohsiung City Council

07 January 2003: Arthur Ding: US Military cooperation with Taiwan now closer

04 January 2003: Editorial: Tiaoyutai: Use diplomacy, not the military

04 January 2003: US tells Israel to curb China arms sales

02 January 2003: Editorial: Heed vice president Lu's warning about China

02 January 2003: Nat Bellocchi: What if Taiwan's democracy fails?

01 January 2003: Editorial: A New Year's resolution

01 January 2003: Chuck DeVore: If China attacks it will be destroyed

December 2003

30 December 2003: Editorial: Enough KMT "black gold" politics

30 December 2003: Prof. Chen Lung-chu: Taiwan and EU's shared interest in Strait peace

29 December 2003: Nat Bellocchi: The pillars of US' Taiwan policy

27 December 2003: Editorial: Do not be duped by China's ploys

25 December 2003: Chris Lingle: Beijing undermines its neighbors

25 December 2003: Liu Kuan-teh: Lien needs to explain his actions to the voters

24 December 2003: Editorial: Grinches across the Taiwan Strait

24 December 2003: AIT briefed on "five noes" threat

23 December 2003: President Chen Shui-bian: may revoke "five noes"

23 December 2003: Prof. Lee Chang-kuei: China's missiles threaten status quo

22 December 2003: Prof. Lin Tsung-kuang: Wrong side blamed for upsetting status quo

21 December 2003: Taipei Times: Time for the KMT to resolve assets issue

21 December 2003: Liberty Times: China is practicing state terrorism

21 December 2003: Chin Heng-wei: A ticking time bomb among the pan-blues

20 December 2003: Charles Snyder: US links Taiwan's democracy, stability

20 December 2003: Mark Laanemets: In Estonia, an example for Taiwan to draw on

20 December 2003: Defense report: China has a "sudden strike" plan

19 December 2003: Ruan Ming: Problem is Taiwanese shortage of confidence

19 December 2003: Paul Lin: No rift exists in relations with US

18 December 2003: Liu Kuan-teh: What price is placed on an alliance of values?

18 December 2003: President Chen: Missile test would trigger sovereignty vote

17 December 2003: Michael Hsiao: Missiles constitute at threat to the nation

17 December 2003: Vincent Wang: Bush snubs democracy in Taiwan

17 December 2003: William Stimson: Proud to be living in a free Taiwan

17 December 2003: DPP presses Wang Jing-pyng on independence remarks

16 December 2003: Chin Heng-wei: US won't dare to tell Taiwan "no"

16 December 2003: Yen Chueh-an: Referendum on updated preamble to Constitution

16 December 2003: Majority in Taiwan: support referendum, poll shows

15 December 2003: President Chen: accuses Bush of double-standards

15 December 2003: Paul Lin: Taiwan must guard its democracy

14 December 2003: President Chen has some questions for Hu Jintao

14 December 2003: Taiwan's friends in Congress send letter to Bush

14 December 2003: Activists have their own take on history

13 December 2003: Editorial: Election offers old faces, new issues

13 December 2003: Demonstrators criticize Bush for bowing to China

13 December 2003: VP Lu: Bush comments highlighted Taiwan's plight

13 December 2003: Prof Chen Lung-chu: Principles for nation: rights and democracy

13 December 2003: Doug Bandow: US must stand firm as China rises

12 December 2003: Editorial: US leaves Taiwan to tango alone

12 December 2003: Rights group: Isolation leaves Taiwan at risk

12 December 2003: President Chen choses Lu to be running mate

12 December 2003: Ruan Ming: Referendum to decide nation's path

12 December 2003: Chen urges US to look at its democratic roots

11 December 2003: Chen still defiant after Bush rebuke

11 December 2003: Self-determination gets support

11 December 2003: Editorial: Pan-blue media in a time warp

11 December 2003: Nat Bellocchi: New ambiguity may be restrictive

10 December 2003: Editorial: Democracy an alien concept for Wen Jiabao

10 December 2003: US reiterates referendum criticism

10 December 2003: James Wang: China asks US to aid in suppression

10 December 2003: Dutchmen's role in democracy effort recalled

09 December 2003: Foreigners recount life under martial law

08 December 2003: President Chen: details issues to be put to referendum vote

08 December 2003: James Wang: US must see the status quo as what it is

08 December 2003: Parris Chang: Defensive referendum can clarify viewpoints

07 December 2003: Liberty Times: Stop glossing over China's threat

07 December 2003: Editorial: Soong must come clean to the public

06 December 2003: Paul Lin: Taking advantage of the status quo

06 December 2003: Editorial: US should not oppose referendum

05 December 2003: President Chen: Vote to push for the status quo

05 December 2003: US ready to press President Chen to maintain stability

05 December 2003: Li Thian-hok: Take away China's trojan horse

04 December 2003: Editorial: Taipei Times: Referendums a victory for Taiwan

04 December 2003: Parris Chang: Taiwan's democracy worrying to Beijing

02 December 2003: Nat Bellocchi: The answer is dialogue, not the US

October 2003

31 October 2003: Editorial: A difference of opinion

30 October 2003: Nat Bellocchi: Democratization and foreign policy

30 October 2003: Editorial: Sychophancy still rules in the KMT

29 October 2003: Editorial: Truth is always the best defense

29 October 2003: Bruce Jacobs: Hu Jin-tao's very offensive speech

29 October 2003: Paul Lin: US-Taiwan ties not deteriorating

28 October 2003: Wu Ming-chi: US, EU apt constitutional models

27 October 2003: Editorial: Mme Chiang, so long and good riddance

27 October 2003: Former President Lee urges public to build a nation

27 October 2003: Prof. Richard Kagan: US' problem with "One China" policy

26 October 2003: Editorial: Who will stand with us?

26 October 2003: Kaohsiung gets behind referendum bid

25 October 2003: Editorial: Lien Chan gives the DPP a hand

25 October 2003: Prof. Chen Lung-chu: EU offers inspiration to pen new Constitution

25 October 2003: Chen Ching-cheh: The lie behind "Retrocession Day"

23 October 2003: Paul Lin: US must check China's militarism

22 October 2003: James Wang: Fortune will favor a brave Taiwan

20 October 2003: Editorial: Inter- personal rivalries hamper DPP

20 October 2003: Prof. Lee Hung-hsi: Constitution "bizarre, outdated"

19 October 2003: Liberty Times: Who are Taiwan's real enemies?

18 October 2003: Mac William Bishop: A worrying disparity in strategic flexibility

17 October 2003: Editorial: Another "Great Leap", continued poverty

16 October 2003: Editorial: Beijing has forgotten its history

14 October 2003: Editorial: Shed no tears over lost ally

14 October 2003: James Wang: US response clear and level-headed

14 October 2003: Liu Shih-xiang: Taiwan should keep its distance from China

13 October 2003: Editorial: The pan-blues' jive talk is off beat

12 October 2003: Liberty Times: A new Constitution to relfect reality

12 October 2003: Lee Teng-hui attacks China-centric ideology

11 October 2003: President Chen tells Beijing to ditch "One China"

10 October 2003: Editorial: Don't believe everything you read

10 October 2003: Liu Kuan-teh: Why President Chen wants a new Constitution

08 October 2003: James Wang: Paal doesn't understand the TRA

06 October 2003: Liza Lee & Jonathan Gardner: Free students from China's shackles

05 October 2003: Lee and Chen make firm commitment to Constitution

03 October 2003: Hsu Yung-ming: Drafting a Constitution would alter status quo

03 October 2003: Paul Lin: Hillary must be tough on China

03 October 2003: Taiwan reassures US over plan for new Constitution

02 October 2003: Editorial: The KMT's questionable allegiance

01 October 2003: Editorial: Constitution must stay current

01 October 2003: Joseph Wu: New Constitution for a new nation

01 October 2003: Chen seeks plebiscite on Constitution

August 2003

31 August 2003: US Congressman pushes for diplomatic recognition

29 August 2003: Nat Bellocchi: Taiwan, Hong Kong, and China

25 August 2003: Editorial: Reason not to celebrate

24 August 2003: Fmr. President Lee: Change of name must happen

23 August 2003: Editorial: President Chen's foreign policy successes

17 August 2003: Presidents Chen and Lee warn of conservative force's return

16 August 2003: Liu Kuan-teh: President Chen faces numerous electoral challenges

16 August 2003: Mineo Nakajima: Now is the time to change Taiwan's name

15 August 2003: Chen Shih-min: Make national security a priority

10 August 2003: Editorial: Beware the undertow

09 August 2003: Charles Snyder: Taiwan getting some recongition as its own country

08 August 2003: Spy case puts government in damage-control mode

07 August 2003: Editorial: China is biggest security threat

07 August 2003: Investigators credit tip for spy charges

05 August 2003: Prof. Chen Lung-chu: Democracy will emerge victorious over tanks

04 August 2003: Lee Teng-hui lambasts economic integration with China

03 August 2003: President Chen: Clearing 228 victims' names a milestone

02 August 2003: Editorial: A timely reminder of China's threat

02 August 2003: White House also warns on China's military aims

01 August 2003: US warns of increasing China threat

01 August 2003: Li Thian-hok: "One country, two systems" is a fraud

June 2003

28 June 2003: President Chen to go ahead with referedum

28 June 2003: Legislator Trong Chai: No need to worry if US opposes referendum

25 June 2003: Referendums top agendas in US

24 June 2003: DPP promises referendum push

23 June 2003: Editorial: A referendum is essential

23 June 2003: President Chen: Referendum is a right

23 June 2003: Li Thian-hok: The shift in US-Taiwan relations

22 June 2003: Liberty Times: Kao betrayed his nation's interests

22 June 2003: Parties tell US to keep nose out of domestic affairs

21 June 2003: Editorial: Standing firm against China's tricks

21 June 2003: Vincent Lin: Kao a sign of what to expect if Soong wins

20 June 2003: Editorial: Kao coming home with egg on his face

20 June 2003: Legislator Tom Wang: Kao should face leagal penalties

18 June 2003: UN reporters planning Taiwan seminar

17 June 2003: Editorial: PFP's Kao represents Beijing, not Taiwan

16 June 2003: Editorial: President Chen tackles "black gold"

12 June 2003: Editorial: Wronged by the WHO ... again

11 June 2003: Editorial: Passport to paradise

April 2003

28 April 2003: Editorial: SARS and the plague: a lesson from British history books

26 April 2003: Editorial: We must quarantine China

26 April 2003: Legislator Mark Chen: Taiwan's media should regulate themselves

25 April 2003: Editorial: Beijing infiltrates local media

25 April 2003: Alliance urges name change for "China Airlines"

24 April 2003: VP Annette Lu: planning to bow out of 2004 poll

21 April 2003: Parris Chang: What about the Taiwan question?

17 April 2003: Editorial: China's despots only know lies

16 April 2003: Chris Lingle: Beware of deals that sell out Taipei

16 April 2003: Prof. Chen Lung-chu: Only losers still think of investing in China

15 April 2003: Peter Lin: Inaccurate statistics deadlier than SARS

11 April 2003: Chin Heng-wei: Lien and Soong back to square one

11 April 2003: Ng Chiau-tong: Why not call this nation "Taiwan"

10 April 2003: Parris Chang: Recognizing China for what it isn't

09 April 2003: Harvey Feldman: Penning the future of Taiwan

09 April 2003: Nat Bellocchi: Crises illustrate China's failures

06 April 2003: Editorial: WHO should live up to its name

05 April 2003: Editorial: SARS is not China's only gift

04 April 2003: All "Kaohsiung Incident" papers to be released

03 April 2003: Editorial: The KMT still ignoring Kaohsiung scandal

02 April 2003: Editorial: Lien Chan more quisling than quixotic

01 April 2003: Liu Kuan-teh: Soong and Lien have little to say on Iraq war

01 April 2003: Sushil Seth: US grapples with its China policy

01 April 2003: President Chen: Lien plans to surrender to China

February 2003

28 February 2003: Remembering 228: Facing a violent past

25 February 2003: Editorial: Keeping an eye on Beijing

25 February 2003: Parris Chang: Military mindset needs overhaul

23 February 2003: Liberty Times: "Nativism" is not isolationist policy

23 February 2003: Chris Frost: Identity awareness is crucial

19 February 2003: Editorial: Much ado about just one word, "Taiwan"

16 February 2003: Editorial: Thanks for the nuts ... but the bolts?

15 February 2003: Editorial: Taiwan should stand up for its rights

13 February 2003: Editorial: New missiles threaten Taiwan

13 February 2003: Editorial: Soong keeps his victim mentality

11 February 2003: Li Thian-hok: Taiwan's status according to Chen

11 February 2003: Lawmakers takes quest for WHO support to Europe

09 February 2003: Editorial: China bites a hand holding treats

09 February 2003: Sushil Seth: China hides behind its new veneer

08 February 2003: Huang Tien-lin: Taiwan's tigers turn into pawns

07 February 2003: Prof. Chen Lung-chu: Protecting the right to determine our future

02 February 2003: Liberty Times: Investing in China is risky for Taiwan

01 February 2003: President Chen: Launching a new era of Asia-Pacific cooperation